Glossary of terms

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  • BITTORRENT – method of transferring data over the internet. BitTorrent is a highly efficient way to transfer large files between a number of individuals. Unlike most other file-sharing methods, BitTorrent uses swarming methods to almost completely eliminate queuing and enhance transfer speeds
  • BITTORRENT TRACKER – the central management point for a BitTorrent swarm (a group of peers downloading and uploading a particular file)

  • CAM – a pirated copy of a film made using a recording device within a cinema. Video and audio quality is generally low. The picture is often cropped or filmed from an angle and audience sounds (e.g. laughter) may be present on the copy
  • CAMMER – an individual who illegally records films in a cinema
  • CLIENT – a program used by a peer (an individual) to connect to a file-sharing network and interact with other users
  • CLOUD COMPUTING – the use of online storage and computing services supplied to users on demand. The content being processed or stored using cloud computing does not reside on the local disk of the user’s computer. Large companies use a vast number of powerful computers to provide this service
  • CRYPTOCURRENCY – digital currency created, traded and recorded online. Managed through a peer-to-peer system, cryptocurrency is not managed through banks or central systems. Bitcoin is the world’s largest example
  • CYBERLOCKER – an internet hosting service specifically designed to host user files

  • DIGITAL PIRACY – the unauthorised copying and resale of digital goods (e.g. software, music files)
  • DNS (DOMAIN NAME SERVER) – translates human readable names (e.g. “”) into the binary IP addresses that are actually used to move data packets around the internet
  • DOMAIN NAME – a domain name locates an organisation or other entity on the internet. It allows you to reference internet sites without knowing the true numerical address
  • DVD BURNER – a DVD burner can copy the content of a DVD onto blank writable DVD media. DVD burner towers are standalone machines with a master tray and, usually, around ten burner trays

  • ENCODER – a release group encoder converts acquired content from one format to another – capable of refining, syncing, converting and compressing the audio and video files into a single file
  • ENCRYPTION – the process of scrambling, or encoding, information in an effort to guarantee that only the intended recipient can read it

  • FILELINKED – software that allows users to download files using a generated code. This software is often used to share Android apps (.apk files) as an alternative to official sources such as the Google Play store
  • FTP (FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL) – used to send whole documents or collections of documents stored in one computer to another through the internet

  • GIGABYTE (GB) – a measure of memory capacity and roughly one thousand megabytes or a billion bytes

  • HASH VALUE – used by most modern peer-to-peer networks to refer to specific files. All files are given a hash value, which is a combination of numbers and letters to uniquely identify the file. Numerous filenames may be associated with a file but this does not change anything about the file’s hash value, allowing users to find all sources of a particular file regardless of the file name

  • ILLICIT STREAMING DEVICE (ISD) – devices such as set-top boxes – also known as ‘Kodi boxes’ or ‘Android TV boxes’ – become illicit when they are modified or adapted to stream paid-for content such as TV, film and sports, without the user paying the appropriate subscription
  • INDEXING WEBSITE (aka linking website) – a website that provides organised and searchable hyperlinks that direct a user to content hosted on other websites
  • INSTANT MESSAGING – technology similar to that of a chat room, it notifies a user when a friend is online allowing them to exchange messages
  • INTERNET RELAY CHAT (IRC) – a virtual meeting place where people from all over the world can meet and take part in group discussions, in private chats or on public channels
  • INTERNET HOSTING SERVICE – runs internet servers, allowing organisations and individuals to serve content to the internet
  • IPv4 ADDRESS – a unique 32bit number address for each computer connected to the internet. These addresses are usually written in Dotted Quad notation as a series of four 8bit numbers written in decimal and separated by dots. For example: Each number in the IP address falls between 0 and 255. If you ever see something that looks like an IP address with numbers outside those ranges, it’s not a real address. For example, a computer running virtual websites will have an IP address for each website it hosts. In addition, a pool of IP addresses may be shared between numerous computers. On a dynamic-IP dialup connection, your computer will be allocated a different IP address each time you connect
  • ISP (INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER) – a company that provides access to the internet via telephone, cable or fibre optic line to your home or office

  • KODI – an open source digital media player. Kodi software is illegal when it has been modified or adapted to allow users to watch pay-for content without paying the subscription

  • LINK – any text or graphic coded and formatted so that clicking on it automatically ‘links’ to a resource such as a document or image
  • LINKING WEBSITE (aka indexing website) – a website that provides organised and searchable hyperlinks that direct a user to content hosted on other websites

  • MAGNET LINK – a link used to download via peer-to-peer networks. The magnet link contains a hash value, which does not hold information on the location of a resource, but allows for the identification of other individuals with copies of the desired file(s) at any given time
  • MEDIA CARDS – small sized data storage media that are more commonly found in digital devices such as cameras and mobile phones. They can also be used for the storage of normal data files, which can be accessed and written to by computers. There are a number of different formats including a Smartmedia card, SD Expansion Card, Ultra Compact Flash, Compact Flash, Multimedia Card, and Memory Stick. The cards retain their data when power to their device is stopped and they can be exchanged between devices
  • MEGABYTE (Mb) – a measure of memory capacity. 1 Megabyte =1024 Kilobytes
  • MEMORY – often used as a shorter synonym for Random Access Memory (RAM). Memory is the electronic holding place for instructions and data that a computer’s microprocessor can reach quickly. RAM is located on one or more microchips installed in a computer
  • MEMORY STICK – a USB storage medium. See USB Storage Devices
  • MOBILE APP – a computer program or software designed to work on mobile devices such as phones or tablet computers

  • NETWORK – a group of computers and associated devices that are interconnected by communication paths. A network can involve physical connections, such as cables, or wireless connections made through WiFi, mobile network or other communication links. A network can be as small as a few devices connected locally, or it can consist of many small and large devices distributed over a vast geographic area

  • PEER – an individual client (usually representing an individual computer and individual person) on a file-sharing network
  • PEER-TO-PEER (P2P) – on the internet, peer-to-peer (often referred to as P2P) is a type of transient internet network or protocol that allows a group of computer users with the same networking program to connect with each other and directly access files from one another’s hard disk drives. Typically the most commonly shared files include pictures, movies, music and software programs
  • PLEX – software consisting of a media server and client app. The software enables media stored on the server to be accessed by devices with the app installed. This software can facilitate access to infringing content where media is shared with third parties without the content owner’s authorisation
  • PRIVATE TRACKER – a walled-garden BitTorrent network which requires users to sign up or gain an invitation before they can become members
  • PROXY SERVER – an enterprise that uses the internet; a server that acts as an intermediary between a workstation user and the internet so that the enterprise can ensure security, administrative control, and caching service. A proxy server can improve performance by supplying frequently requested data, such as a popular web page, and can filter and discard requests that the owner does not consider appropriate, such as requests for unauthorised access to proprietary files

  • RELEASE GROUP – an organised group of individuals dedicated to providing pirated versions of the latest content such as films or television episodes

  • THE SCENE – a term of reference used to describe an underground community of people who specialise in the distribution of copyrighted material, including movies, television shows, music, games and eBooks
  • SCREENER – a copy of a film issued to voters for major film awards such as the Oscars or BAFTAs
  • SERVER – the computer program running on a computer that serves requested HTML pages or files
  • SERVICE PROVIDER (ISP) – a person, organisation or company that provides access to the internet. In addition to Internet access, many ISPs provide other services such as web hosting, Domain Name Service and other proprietary services
  • STREAMING AUDIO/VIDEO – listening to or viewing media files from the internet in real time as opposed to saving the file and playing it later
  • SWARM – a group of peers downloading and uploading a particular file online

  • TELESYNC – a pirated copy of a film made using direct (often digital) audio and which can also feature better quality video than a cam
  • TOP SITE – a highly private FTP server, often holding numerous terabytes of content, to which release groups affiliate and which contains the most recent content pirated by release groups. Highly secretive and difficult to access without knowledge of individuals within the warez community
  • TORRENT FILE – stores metadata used for BitTorrent. A torrent is defined as data about a target file, though it contains no information about the content of the file. The only data that the torrent holds is information about the location of different pieces of the target file. Torrents work by dividing the target file into small information chunks, found on an unlimited number of different hosts. Through this method, torrents are able to download large files quickly. When a downloader initiates a torrent download, the chunks of target file that are needed can be found easily, based on the data from the torrent itself. Once all the chunks are downloaded the client can assemble them into a useable form
  • TRACKER (BITTORRENT TRACKER) – the central management point for a BitTorrent swarm (a group of peers downloading and uploading a particular file)

  • URL (UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR) – the address of a file accessible on the Internet. An example of a URL is:, which describes a Web page to be accessed with an HTTP (Web browser) application that is located on a computer named The specific file is in the directory named /consumer-advice and is named digital-content-and-online-safety/

  • VPN (VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK) – usually refers to a network in which some of the parts are connected using the public internet but the data sent across the internet is encrypted so the entire network is “virtually” private

  • WAREZ – pronounced “wares”; this is a term used on the internet to refer to pirated software
  • WEB SERVER – a computer on the internet or intranet that serves as a storage area for a webpage. When asked by a web browser, the server ‘serves’ (sends) the page to the browser

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